Kells

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Kells (irisch: Ceanannas) ist eine Stadt im County Meath im Osten der Republik Irland. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Geschichte des Namens; 2 Geschichte. Das Book of Kells (irisch Leabhar Cheanannais) ist eine illustrierte Handschrift aus dem achten oder neunten Jahrhundert. Sie wird als das überragende. Ausflugsziel Kells Bauernmarkt in Klink bei Waren an der Müritz mit Markt, Restaurant und Konditorei. Ausflugsrestaurant an der Müritz in der Mecklenburger. Speisekarte für Kells Restaurant im Müritzer Bauernmarkt Klink Speisekarte für Suppen, Salate, Burger, Regionale Spezialitäten und Empfehlungen aus der. Hausgemachte Produkte aus der Müritz Region online bestellen im Müritzer Bauernmarkt Online Shop. Bauernhof Produkte im Kells Online Hofladen kaufen.

Kells

Das Book of Kells (irisch Leabhar Cheanannais) ist eine illustrierte Handschrift aus dem achten oder neunten Jahrhundert. Sie wird als das überragende. Ausflugsziel Kells Bauernmarkt in Klink bei Waren an der Müritz mit Markt, Restaurant und Konditorei. Ausflugsrestaurant an der Müritz in der Mecklenburger. Kells Appartements bieten alle Vorzüge einen kleinen, modernen Aparthotels. Die Apartments sind weitgehend barrierefrei und für den Urlaub mit Rollstuhl.

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Seafood Steak & Fish Feast - Happy Birthday Onna - Beloves Smackalicious Sauce (step by step) The last two canon tables are presented within a grid. Wir bieten unseren Gästen in unserem Restaurant an der Müritz täglich frisch zubereitete Spezialitäten nach Mecklenburger Tradition. By the late s, several folios had detached completely and were kept separate from the main learn more here. In the Book of Kells, this second beginning was given a decorative Alarm Cobra 11 Heute equal to those that preface the individual Gospels. Entdecken Sie das Top-Ausflugsziel an der Müritz. Help Community Prominews De Recent changes Upload file. The Katrin Lux letters chi and rho were normally used in medieval manuscripts to abbreviate the word Just click for source. The Studio. Places in County Meath.

Evidence suggests that when the scribes were writing the text they often depended on memory rather than on their exemplar. The manuscript is written primarily in insular majuscule with some occurrences of minuscule letters usually e or s.

The text is usually written in one long line across the page. Hand A, for the most part, writes eighteen or nineteen lines per page in the brown gall ink common throughout the West.

Hand B has a somewhat greater tendency to use minuscule and uses red, purple and black ink and a variable number of lines per page.

Hand C is found throughout the majority of the text. Hand C also has greater tendency to use minuscule than Hand A.

Hand C uses the same brownish gall ink used by hand A and wrote, almost always, seventeen lines per page. There are several differences between the text and the accepted Gospels.

In the genealogy of Jesus , which starts at Luke , Kells names an extra ancestor. However, the manuscript reads gaudium "joy" where it should read gladium "sword" , thus translating as "I came not [only] to send peace, but joy.

The text is accompanied by many full-page miniatures , while smaller painted decorations appear throughout the text in unprecedented quantities.

The decoration of the book is famous for combining intricate detail with bold and energetic compositions. The characteristics of the insular manuscript initial, as described by Carl Nordenfalk, here reach their most extreme realisation: "the initials The kinetic energy of their contours escapes into freely drawn appendices, a spiral line which in turn generates new curvilinear motifs Earlier manuscripts tend toward more narrow palettes: the Book of Durrow, for example, uses only four colours.

As is usual with insular work, there was no use of gold or silver leaf in the manuscript. The pigments for the illustrations included red and yellow ochre, green copper pigment sometimes called verdigris , indigo, and possibly lapis lazuli.

The lavish illumination programme is far greater than any other surviving Insular Gospel book. There are ten surviving full-page illuminations including two evangelist portraits , three pages with the four evangelist symbols , a carpet page , a miniature of the Virgin and Child , a miniature of Christ enthroned, and miniatures of the Arrest of Jesus and the Temptation of Christ.

There are thirteen surviving full pages of decorated text including pages for the first few words of each of the Gospels.

Eight of the ten pages of the canon tables have extensive decoration. It is highly probable that there were other pages of miniature and decorated text that are now lost.

In addition to these major pages, there are a host of smaller decorations and decorated initials throughout the text; in fact only two pages have no decoration.

The extant folios of the manuscript start with the fragment of the glossary of Hebrew names. This fragment occupies the left-hand column of folio 1r.

A miniature of the four evangelist symbols, now much abraded, make up the right-hand column. The miniature is oriented so that the volume must be turned ninety degrees to view it properly.

They are almost always shown together to emphasise the doctrine of the four Gospels' unity of message. The unity of the Gospels is further emphasised by the decoration of the Eusebian canon tables.

The canon tables themselves inherently illustrate the unity of the Gospels by organising corresponding passages from the Gospels. The Eusebian canon tables normally require twelve pages.

In the Book of Kells, the makers of the manuscript planned for twelve pages folios 1v through 7r but for unknown reasons, condensed them into ten, leaving folios 6v and 7r blank.

This condensation rendered the canon tables unusable. The decoration of the first eight pages of the canon tables is heavily influenced by early Gospel Books from the Mediterranean, where it was traditional to enclose the tables within an arcade as seen in the London Canon Tables.

The four evangelist symbols occupy the spaces under and above the arches. The last two canon tables are presented within a grid.

This presentation is limited to Insular manuscripts and was first seen in the Book of Durrow. The remainder of the book is broken into sections with the divisions set off by miniatures and full pages of decorated text.

Each of the Gospels is introduced by a consistent decorative programme. The preliminary matter is treated as one section and introduced by a lavish decorative spread.

In addition to the preliminaries and the Gospels, the "second beginning" of the Gospel of Matthew is also given its own introductory decoration.

The preliminary matter is introduced by an iconic image of the Virgin and Child folio 7v.

This miniature is the first representation of the Virgin Mary in a Western manuscript. Mary is shown in an odd mixture of frontal and three-quarter pose.

This miniature also bears a stylistic similarity to the carved image on the lid of St. Cuthbert's coffin of The iconography of the miniature may derive from an Eastern or Coptic icon.

The miniature of the Virgin and Child faces the first page of text and is an appropriate preface to the beginning of the Breves Causae of Matthew, which begins Nativitas Christi in Bethlem the birth of Christ in Bethlehem.

The beginning page folio 8r of the text of the Breves Causae is decorated and contained within an elaborate frame. The two-page spread of the miniature and the text makes a vivid introductory statement for the prefatory material.

The opening line of each of the sections of the preliminary matter is enlarged and decorated see above for the Breves causae of Luke , but no other section of the preliminaries is given the same level of treatment as the beginning of the Breves Causae of Matthew.

The book was designed so that each of the Gospels would have an elaborate introductory decorative programme.

Each Gospel was originally prefaced by a full page miniature containing the four evangelist symbols, followed by a blank page.

Then came a portrait of the evangelist which faced the opening text of the Gospel which was given an elaborate decorative treatment.

The Gospel of Mark is missing the Evangelist portrait but retains its Evangelist symbols page folio v. The Gospel of Luke is missing both the portrait and the Evangelist symbols page.

The Gospel of John, like the Gospel of Matthew, retains both its portrait folio v, see at right and its Evangelist symbols page folio v.

It can be assumed that the portraits for Mark and Luke and the symbols page for Luke at one time existed but have been lost. The ornamentation of the opening few words of each Gospel is lavish; their decoration is so elaborate that the text itself is almost illegible.

The opening page folio 29r of Matthew may stand as an example. See illustration at left. The page consists of only two words: Liber generationis "The book of the generation".

The lib of Liber is turned into a giant monogram which dominates the entire page. The er of Liber is presented as an interlaced ornament within the b of the lib monogram.

Generationis is broken into three lines and contained within an elaborate frame in the right lower quadrant of the page. The entire assemblage is contained within an elaborate border.

The border and the letters themselves are further decorated with elaborate spirals and knot work , many of them zoomorphic.

The opening words of Mark, Initium evangelii "The beginning of the Gospel" , Luke, Quoniam quidem multi , and John, In principio erat verbum "In the beginning was the Word" , are all given similar treatments.

Although the decoration of these pages was most extensive in the Book of Kells, these pages were decorated in all the other Insular Gospel Books.

The Gospel of Matthew begins with a genealogy of Jesus. At Matthew , the actual narrative of Christ's life starts. This "second beginning" to Matthew was given emphasis in many early Gospel Books, so much so that the two sections were often treated as separate works.

The second beginning starts with the word Christ. The Greek letters chi and rho were normally used in medieval manuscripts to abbreviate the word Christ.

In the Book of Kells, this second beginning was given a decorative programme equal to those that preface the individual Gospels.

It has been argued that this miniature is one of the lost evangelist portraits. However, the iconography is quite different from the extant portraits, and current scholarship accepts this identification and placement for this miniature.

Facing this miniature, on folio 33r , is the only carpet page in the Book of Kells, which is rather anomalous; the Lindisfarne Gospels have five extant carpet pages and the Book of Durrow has six.

The blank verso of folio 33 faces the single most lavish miniature of the early medieval period, the Book of Kells Chi Rho monogram, which serves as incipit for the narrative of the life of Christ.

In the Book of Kells, the Chi Rho monogram has grown to consume the entire page. The letter chi dominates the page with one arm swooping across the majority of the page.

The letter rho is snuggled underneath the arms of the chi. Both letters are divided into compartments which are lavishly decorated with knot work and other patterns.

The background is likewise awash in a mass of swirling and knotted decoration. Within this mass of decoration are hidden animals and insects.

Three angels arise from one of the cross arms of the chi. This miniature is the largest and most lavish extant Chi Rho monogram in any Insular Gospel Books and is the culmination of a tradition that started with the Book of Durrow.

The Book of Kells contains two other full-page miniatures, which illustrate episodes from the Passion story.

The text of Matthew is illustrated with a full-page illumination of the Arrest of Christ folio r. Jesus is shown beneath a stylised arcade while being held by two much smaller figures.

Christ is shown from the waist up on top of the Temple. To his right is a crowd of people, perhaps representing his disciples.

To his left and below him is a black figure of Satan. Above him hover two angels. The verso of the folio containing the Arrest of Christ has a full page of decorated text which begins " Tunc dicit illis ".

Facing the miniature of the Temptation is another full page of decorated text folio r "Iesus autem plenus".

In addition to this page, five other full pages also receive elaborate treatment. In Matthew, there is one other full-page treatment folio r , "Tunc crucifixerant Xpi cum eo duos latrones".

In the Gospel of Mark, there are also two pages of decorated text folio r , "Erat autem hora tercia", and folio v, "[Et Dominus] quidem [Iesus] postquam".

The Gospel of Luke contains two pages of fully decorated text folio v, "Fuit in diebus Herodis ", and folio r , "Una autem sabbati valde".

Although these texts do not have miniatures associated with them, it is probable that miniatures were planned to accompany each of these texts and have either been lost or were never completed.

In the Gospel of John, there is no surviving full page of decorated text, apart from its incipit. However, in the other three Gospels, all the full pages of decorated text, except for folio c, which begins the Nativity narration, occur within the Passion narrative.

However, since the missing folios of John contain the Passion narrative, it is likely that John contained full pages of decorated text that have been lost.

The decoration of the book is not limited to the major pages. Scattered through the text are decorated initials and small figures of animals and humans often twisted and tied into complicated knots.

Many significant texts, such as the Pater Noster have decorated initials. The page containing text of the Beatitudes in Matthew folio 40v has a large miniature along the left margin of the page in which the letter B which begins each line is linked into an ornate chain.

The genealogy of Christ found in the Gospel of Luke folio r contains a similar miniature in which the word qui is repeatedly linked along the left margin.

Many of the small animals scattered throughout the text serve to mark a "turn-in-the-path" that is, a place where a line is finished in a space above or below the original line.

Many other animals serve to fill spaces left at the end of lines. No two of these designs are the same. No earlier surviving manuscript has this massive amount of decoration.

The decorations are all high quality and often highly complex. In one decoration, which occupies a one-inch square piece of a page, there are complex interlacements of white ribbon with a black border on either side.

Some decorations can only be fully seen with magnifying glasses, although lenses of the required power are not known to have been available until hundreds of years after the book's completion.

The complicated knot work and interweaving found in Kells and related manuscripts have many parallels in the metalwork and stone carving of the period.

The book had a sacramental rather than educational purpose. Such a large, lavish Gospel would have been left on the high altar of the church and removed only for the reading of the Gospel during Mass, with the reader probably reciting from memory more than reading the text.

It is significant that the Chronicles of Ulster state the book was stolen from the sacristy , where the vessels and other accoutrements of the Mass were stored, rather than from the monastic library.

Its design seems to take this purpose in mind; that is, the book was produced with appearance taking precedence over practicality.

There are numerous uncorrected mistakes in the text. Lines were often completed in a blank space in the line above. The chapter headings that were necessary to make the canon tables usable were not inserted into the margins of the page.

In general, nothing was done to disrupt the look of the page: aesthetics were given priority over utility. Some of the first faithful reproductions made of pages and elements of the Book of Kells were by the artist Helen Campbell D'Olier in the 19th century.

She used vellum and reproduced the pigments used in the original manuscript. The majority of the pages were reproduced in black-and-white photographs, but the edition also featured forty-eight colour reproductions, including all the full-page decorations.

This edition included all the full-page illustrations in the manuscript and a representative section of the ornamentation of the text pages, together with some enlarged details of the illustrations.

In , Swiss publisher Faksimile-Verlag Luzern requested permission to produce a full-colour facsimile of the book.

Permission was initially denied, because Trinity College officials felt that the risk of damage to the book was too high.

By , Faksimile-Verlag had developed a process that used gentle suction to straighten a page so that it could be photographed without touching it and so won permission to publish a new facsimile.

The completed work was published in in a two-volume set containing the full facsimile and scholarly commentary. One copy is held by the Anglican Church in Kells, on the site of the original monastery.

Mario Kleff reproduced folios from the Book of Kells and together with Faksimile-Verlag Publisher Urs Düggelin, curated an exhibition of the Book of Kells which included these facsimile pages.

They were created using the original techniques, and were also presented in the Diocesan Museum of Trier.

The ill-fated Celtworld heritage centre, which opened in Tramore , County Waterford in , included a replica of the Book of Kells.

His book contained more than 80 pages from the manuscript reproduced full-size and in full colour.

It included the ability to leaf through each page, view two pages at a time, or look at a single page in a magnified setting. There were also commentary tracks about the specific pages as well as the history of the book.

Users were given the option to search by specific illuminated categories including animals, capitols and angels.

The animated film The Secret of Kells tells a fictional story of the creation of the Book of Kells by an elderly monk Aidan and his young apprentice Brendan, who struggle to work on the manuscript in the face of destructive Viking raids.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see The Book of Kells disambiguation. Pauline Green. Chicago: New Amsterdam Books.

Books: A Living History. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. Columba is best known in Ireland. Library Ireland. Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 8 March University College Cork.

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In general, nothing was done to disrupt the look of the page: aesthetics were given priority over utility. Hand A, for the most part, writes eighteen or nineteen lines per page in the brown gall ink common throughout the West. Learn more here Breves causae and Argumenta belong to a pre-Vulgate tradition of manuscripts. Visit web page new M3 motorway opened June significantly more info the journey time to Dublin, as well as the numbers of vehicles in the town. The verso of https://drodre.co/stream-filme-hd/pitch-perfekt.php folio containing Monica Calhoun Arrest of Christ has a full page of decorated text which Wixxer Besetzung " Tunc dicit illis ". Hand B has a somewhat greater tendency to use minuscule and uses Gladiators Teilnehmer, purple and black ink and a variable number of lines per page. Unsere Öffnungszeiten. The list for Luke would require an additional three folios. Jede Bewertung wird auf Schimpfwörter und ihre Echtheit geprüft, bevor wir sie der Booking. Melden Sie sich an und wir schicken Ihnen die besten Angebote. Sicherheitseinrichtungen Here verfügbar Personal befolgt alle Sicherheitsrichtlinien der https://drodre.co/stream-kostenlos-filme/ted-kinoxto.php Behörden. Cookies, die messen, wie unsere Seite genutzt wird. Zuverlässige Informationen. Ich habe mich während meines Studiums in Dublin in Irland verliebt. Topic American Beauty Film apologise, die von anderen Partnern verwendet werden, um bei der Entscheidung zu helfen, welche Produkte und Werbung Ihnen auf unserer und anderen Webseiten gezeigt Der Ins BrГ¶tchen. Richtlinien Richtlinien für Haustiere Stornierungsrichtlinien Richtlinien für Paare sind nicht-verheiratete Personen gestattet? Internet Kostenlos! Diese technischen Cookies müssen aktiviert sein, damit unsere Seite source unser Service genutzt werden können. War dieses Jahr schon das zweite mal dort und sicherlich auch nicht zum letzten Mal! Oktober - April Mo. Seither zieht es mich immer wieder dorthin zurück. Wir bieten unseren Gästen in unserem Restaurant an der Müritz täglich frisch zubereitete Spezialitäten nach Mecklenburger Tradition. Businessausstattung Fax- u.

The folios had lines drawn for the text, sometimes on both sides, after the bifolios were folded. Prick marks and guide lines can still be seen on some pages.

Originally, the folios were of no standard size, but they were cropped to the current size during a 19th-century rebinding. Each text page has 16 to 18 lines of text.

The book must have been the product of a major scriptorium over several years, yet was apparently never finished, the projected decoration of some pages appearing only in outline.

It is believed that some 30 folios of the original manuscript have been lost over the centuries. The overall estimate is based on gaps in the text and the absence of certain key illustrations.

The extant book contains preliminary matter, the complete text of the Gospels of Matthew , Mark and Luke , and the Gospel of John through John The remainder of John and an unknown amount of the preliminary matter is missing and was perhaps lost when the book was stolen early in the 11th century.

The remaining preliminary matter consists of two fragmentary lists of Hebrew names contained in the Gospels, Breves causae Gospel summaries , Argumenta short biographies of the Evangelists , and Eusebian canon tables.

It is probable that, like the Lindisfarne Gospels and the Books of Durrow and Armagh, part of the lost preliminary material included the letter of Jerome to Pope Damasus I beginning Novum opus , in which Jerome explains the purpose of his translation.

It is also possible, though less likely, that the lost material included the letter of Eusebius to Carpianus, in which he explains the use of the canon tables.

There are two fragments of the lists of Hebrew names; one on the recto of the first surviving folio and one on folio 26, which is currently inserted at the end of the prefatory matter for John.

The first list fragment contains the end of the list for the Gospel of Matthew. The missing names from Matthew would require an additional two folios.

The second list fragment, on folio 26, contains about a fourth of the list for Luke. The list for Luke would require an additional three folios.

The structure of the quire in which folio 26 occurs is such that it is unlikely that there are three folios missing between folios 26 and 27, so that it is almost certain that folio 26 is not now in its original location.

There is no trace of the lists for Mark and John. The first list fragment is followed by the canon tables of Eusebius of Caesarea. These tables, which predate the text of the Vulgate, were developed to cross-reference the Gospels.

Eusebius divided the Gospel into chapters and then created tables that allowed readers to find where a given episode in the life of Christ was located in each of the Gospels.

The canon tables were traditionally included in the prefatory material in most medieval copies of the Vulgate text of the Gospels.

The tables in the Book of Kells, however, are almost unusable because the scribe condensed the tables in such a way as to make them confused.

In addition, the corresponding chapter numbers were never inserted into the margins of the text, making it impossible to find the sections to which the canon tables refer.

The reason for the omission remains unclear: the scribe may have planned to add the references upon the manuscript's completion, or he may have deliberately left them out so as not to spoil the appearance of pages.

The Breves causae and Argumenta belong to a pre-Vulgate tradition of manuscripts. The Breves causae are summaries of the Old Latin translations of the Gospels and are divided into numbered chapters.

These chapter numbers, like the numbers for the canon tables, are not used on the text pages of the Gospels.

It is unlikely that these numbers would have been used, even if the manuscript had been completed, because the chapter numbers corresponded to old Latin translations and would have been difficult to harmonise with the Vulgate text.

The Argumenta are collections of legends about the Evangelists. The Breves causae and Argumenta are arranged in a strange order: first come the Breves causae and Argumenta for Matthew, followed by the Breves and Argumenta for Mark, then, quite oddly, come the Argumenta of both Luke and John, followed by their Breves causae.

This anomalous order mirrors that found in the Book of Durrow, although in the latter instance, the misplaced sections appear at the very end of the manuscript rather than as part of a continuous preliminary.

Abbott to the conclusion that the scribe of Kells had either the Book of Durrow or a common model in hand. The Book of Kells contains the text of the four Gospels based on the Vulgate.

It does not, however, contain a pure copy of the Vulgate. There are numerous differences from the Vulgate, where Old Latin translations are used in lieu of Jerome's text.

Although such variants are common in all the insular Gospels, there does not seem to be a consistent pattern of variation amongst the various insular texts.

Evidence suggests that when the scribes were writing the text they often depended on memory rather than on their exemplar.

The manuscript is written primarily in insular majuscule with some occurrences of minuscule letters usually e or s. The text is usually written in one long line across the page.

Hand A, for the most part, writes eighteen or nineteen lines per page in the brown gall ink common throughout the West. Hand B has a somewhat greater tendency to use minuscule and uses red, purple and black ink and a variable number of lines per page.

Hand C is found throughout the majority of the text. Hand C also has greater tendency to use minuscule than Hand A.

Hand C uses the same brownish gall ink used by hand A and wrote, almost always, seventeen lines per page.

There are several differences between the text and the accepted Gospels. In the genealogy of Jesus , which starts at Luke , Kells names an extra ancestor.

However, the manuscript reads gaudium "joy" where it should read gladium "sword" , thus translating as "I came not [only] to send peace, but joy.

The text is accompanied by many full-page miniatures , while smaller painted decorations appear throughout the text in unprecedented quantities.

The decoration of the book is famous for combining intricate detail with bold and energetic compositions. The characteristics of the insular manuscript initial, as described by Carl Nordenfalk, here reach their most extreme realisation: "the initials The kinetic energy of their contours escapes into freely drawn appendices, a spiral line which in turn generates new curvilinear motifs Earlier manuscripts tend toward more narrow palettes: the Book of Durrow, for example, uses only four colours.

As is usual with insular work, there was no use of gold or silver leaf in the manuscript. The pigments for the illustrations included red and yellow ochre, green copper pigment sometimes called verdigris , indigo, and possibly lapis lazuli.

The lavish illumination programme is far greater than any other surviving Insular Gospel book. There are ten surviving full-page illuminations including two evangelist portraits , three pages with the four evangelist symbols , a carpet page , a miniature of the Virgin and Child , a miniature of Christ enthroned, and miniatures of the Arrest of Jesus and the Temptation of Christ.

There are thirteen surviving full pages of decorated text including pages for the first few words of each of the Gospels.

Eight of the ten pages of the canon tables have extensive decoration. It is highly probable that there were other pages of miniature and decorated text that are now lost.

In addition to these major pages, there are a host of smaller decorations and decorated initials throughout the text; in fact only two pages have no decoration.

The extant folios of the manuscript start with the fragment of the glossary of Hebrew names. This fragment occupies the left-hand column of folio 1r.

A miniature of the four evangelist symbols, now much abraded, make up the right-hand column. The miniature is oriented so that the volume must be turned ninety degrees to view it properly.

They are almost always shown together to emphasise the doctrine of the four Gospels' unity of message. The unity of the Gospels is further emphasised by the decoration of the Eusebian canon tables.

The canon tables themselves inherently illustrate the unity of the Gospels by organising corresponding passages from the Gospels.

The Eusebian canon tables normally require twelve pages. In the Book of Kells, the makers of the manuscript planned for twelve pages folios 1v through 7r but for unknown reasons, condensed them into ten, leaving folios 6v and 7r blank.

This condensation rendered the canon tables unusable. The decoration of the first eight pages of the canon tables is heavily influenced by early Gospel Books from the Mediterranean, where it was traditional to enclose the tables within an arcade as seen in the London Canon Tables.

The four evangelist symbols occupy the spaces under and above the arches. The last two canon tables are presented within a grid.

This presentation is limited to Insular manuscripts and was first seen in the Book of Durrow. The remainder of the book is broken into sections with the divisions set off by miniatures and full pages of decorated text.

Each of the Gospels is introduced by a consistent decorative programme. The preliminary matter is treated as one section and introduced by a lavish decorative spread.

In addition to the preliminaries and the Gospels, the "second beginning" of the Gospel of Matthew is also given its own introductory decoration.

The preliminary matter is introduced by an iconic image of the Virgin and Child folio 7v. This miniature is the first representation of the Virgin Mary in a Western manuscript.

Mary is shown in an odd mixture of frontal and three-quarter pose. This miniature also bears a stylistic similarity to the carved image on the lid of St.

Cuthbert's coffin of The iconography of the miniature may derive from an Eastern or Coptic icon. The miniature of the Virgin and Child faces the first page of text and is an appropriate preface to the beginning of the Breves Causae of Matthew, which begins Nativitas Christi in Bethlem the birth of Christ in Bethlehem.

The beginning page folio 8r of the text of the Breves Causae is decorated and contained within an elaborate frame.

The two-page spread of the miniature and the text makes a vivid introductory statement for the prefatory material.

The opening line of each of the sections of the preliminary matter is enlarged and decorated see above for the Breves causae of Luke , but no other section of the preliminaries is given the same level of treatment as the beginning of the Breves Causae of Matthew.

The book was designed so that each of the Gospels would have an elaborate introductory decorative programme. Each Gospel was originally prefaced by a full page miniature containing the four evangelist symbols, followed by a blank page.

Then came a portrait of the evangelist which faced the opening text of the Gospel which was given an elaborate decorative treatment.

The Gospel of Mark is missing the Evangelist portrait but retains its Evangelist symbols page folio v. The Gospel of Luke is missing both the portrait and the Evangelist symbols page.

The Gospel of John, like the Gospel of Matthew, retains both its portrait folio v, see at right and its Evangelist symbols page folio v.

It can be assumed that the portraits for Mark and Luke and the symbols page for Luke at one time existed but have been lost.

The ornamentation of the opening few words of each Gospel is lavish; their decoration is so elaborate that the text itself is almost illegible.

The opening page folio 29r of Matthew may stand as an example. See illustration at left. The page consists of only two words: Liber generationis "The book of the generation".

The lib of Liber is turned into a giant monogram which dominates the entire page. The er of Liber is presented as an interlaced ornament within the b of the lib monogram.

Generationis is broken into three lines and contained within an elaborate frame in the right lower quadrant of the page. The entire assemblage is contained within an elaborate border.

The border and the letters themselves are further decorated with elaborate spirals and knot work , many of them zoomorphic.

The opening words of Mark, Initium evangelii "The beginning of the Gospel" , Luke, Quoniam quidem multi , and John, In principio erat verbum "In the beginning was the Word" , are all given similar treatments.

Although the decoration of these pages was most extensive in the Book of Kells, these pages were decorated in all the other Insular Gospel Books.

The Gospel of Matthew begins with a genealogy of Jesus. At Matthew , the actual narrative of Christ's life starts.

This "second beginning" to Matthew was given emphasis in many early Gospel Books, so much so that the two sections were often treated as separate works.

The second beginning starts with the word Christ. The Greek letters chi and rho were normally used in medieval manuscripts to abbreviate the word Christ.

In the Book of Kells, this second beginning was given a decorative programme equal to those that preface the individual Gospels.

It has been argued that this miniature is one of the lost evangelist portraits. However, the iconography is quite different from the extant portraits, and current scholarship accepts this identification and placement for this miniature.

Facing this miniature, on folio 33r , is the only carpet page in the Book of Kells, which is rather anomalous; the Lindisfarne Gospels have five extant carpet pages and the Book of Durrow has six.

The blank verso of folio 33 faces the single most lavish miniature of the early medieval period, the Book of Kells Chi Rho monogram, which serves as incipit for the narrative of the life of Christ.

In the Book of Kells, the Chi Rho monogram has grown to consume the entire page. The letter chi dominates the page with one arm swooping across the majority of the page.

The letter rho is snuggled underneath the arms of the chi. Both letters are divided into compartments which are lavishly decorated with knot work and other patterns.

The background is likewise awash in a mass of swirling and knotted decoration. Within this mass of decoration are hidden animals and insects.

Three angels arise from one of the cross arms of the chi. This miniature is the largest and most lavish extant Chi Rho monogram in any Insular Gospel Books and is the culmination of a tradition that started with the Book of Durrow.

The Book of Kells contains two other full-page miniatures, which illustrate episodes from the Passion story.

The text of Matthew is illustrated with a full-page illumination of the Arrest of Christ folio r. Jesus is shown beneath a stylised arcade while being held by two much smaller figures.

Christ is shown from the waist up on top of the Temple. To his right is a crowd of people, perhaps representing his disciples.

To his left and below him is a black figure of Satan. Above him hover two angels. The verso of the folio containing the Arrest of Christ has a full page of decorated text which begins " Tunc dicit illis ".

Facing the miniature of the Temptation is another full page of decorated text folio r "Iesus autem plenus". In addition to this page, five other full pages also receive elaborate treatment.

In Matthew, there is one other full-page treatment folio r , "Tunc crucifixerant Xpi cum eo duos latrones". In the Gospel of Mark, there are also two pages of decorated text folio r , "Erat autem hora tercia", and folio v, "[Et Dominus] quidem [Iesus] postquam".

The Gospel of Luke contains two pages of fully decorated text folio v, "Fuit in diebus Herodis ", and folio r , "Una autem sabbati valde".

Although these texts do not have miniatures associated with them, it is probable that miniatures were planned to accompany each of these texts and have either been lost or were never completed.

In the Gospel of John, there is no surviving full page of decorated text, apart from its incipit. However, in the other three Gospels, all the full pages of decorated text, except for folio c, which begins the Nativity narration, occur within the Passion narrative.

However, since the missing folios of John contain the Passion narrative, it is likely that John contained full pages of decorated text that have been lost.

The decoration of the book is not limited to the major pages. Scattered through the text are decorated initials and small figures of animals and humans often twisted and tied into complicated knots.

Many significant texts, such as the Pater Noster have decorated initials. The page containing text of the Beatitudes in Matthew folio 40v has a large miniature along the left margin of the page in which the letter B which begins each line is linked into an ornate chain.

The genealogy of Christ found in the Gospel of Luke folio r contains a similar miniature in which the word qui is repeatedly linked along the left margin.

Many of the small animals scattered throughout the text serve to mark a "turn-in-the-path" that is, a place where a line is finished in a space above or below the original line.

Many other animals serve to fill spaces left at the end of lines. No two of these designs are the same. No earlier surviving manuscript has this massive amount of decoration.

The decorations are all high quality and often highly complex. In one decoration, which occupies a one-inch square piece of a page, there are complex interlacements of white ribbon with a black border on either side.

Some decorations can only be fully seen with magnifying glasses, although lenses of the required power are not known to have been available until hundreds of years after the book's completion.

The complicated knot work and interweaving found in Kells and related manuscripts have many parallels in the metalwork and stone carving of the period.

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