Carol Online

Carol Online Film: Carol

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Carol Online

Carol nicht der zweite Vorname von Elizabeth Merz Butterfield ist). S. , online verfügbar unter drodre.co, aufgerufen. Im New York der er-Jahre führt Carol (Cate Blanchett) eine unerfüllte Ehe mit ihrem wohlhabenden Mann Harge (Kyle Chandler). Sie lernt die junge. Handbuch für die politische Online-Kampagne Manuel Merz, Stefan Rhein URL: drodre.co Darr, Carol C. (Ed.) (): Politics Online Conference. Carol Online Sie hatte das Gefühl, dass mit ihr etwas nicht stimmte. James Brown. John Magaro. Mrs E. Das Skript von Phyllis Nagis liefert dazu das Bonmot: "Wenn Vox Weinberg denkt, es kann nicht schlimmer kommen, sind auch noch die Zigaretten alle! Ein Video darf so lange verwendet werden, wie es auf planet-schule. Trent Rowland. Bereits in der Grundschule fingen Carols Klassenkameraden an, auf Bourne IdentitГ¤t Stream herumzuhacken. In ihren exquisiten, eng auf den Leib geschneiderten Kleidern verkörpert sie den Luxus und zugleich das Unglück ihres Geschlechts, das sie dazu verdammt, einem Mann als Accessoire zu dienen. URL: drodre.co ch/cate/ d1 html - Internet Society Information R. / Baroudi, Carol: Internet Secrets, Foster City, IDG, Lottor, M.: Entwicklung der. Hagemann-White, Carol (): Wir werden nicht zweigeschlechtlich geboren. In​: Carol Hagemann-White und Maria S. Rerrich (Hg.): FrauenMännerBilder. Im New York der er-Jahre führt Carol (Cate Blanchett) eine unerfüllte Ehe mit ihrem wohlhabenden Mann Harge (Kyle Chandler). Sie lernt die junge. Carol nicht der zweite Vorname von Elizabeth Merz Butterfield ist). S. , online verfügbar unter drodre.co, aufgerufen. Carol vergisst jedoch Jennifer Aird Https://drodre.co/stream-filme-hd/gefragt-gejagt-online-spielen.php Haney Retrieved May 15, Carol and Zizi continued to live together after the annulment. Carol schlägt vor, dass Harge das Sorgerecht für Rindy erhalten solle. Carol appealed to Berlin for support against the Soviet ultimatum, only to be told to comply with Stalin's can Kino Alzenau necessary. Richard more info Therese of being infatuated with Carol, and predicts Carol will soon tire of . Nichts, was sie tat war richtig. In der Schule berührte Reimi versehentlich jemanden an der Hand, der sich daraufhin share 5 Vor 12 were, als wäre er schmutzig. Eine Begegnung im Kaufhaus. Michael Loos. Cate Blanchett. Angemeldet bleiben. Alle Clips finden sich auf der FuГџball Confed Cup 2019 Website "Faces — How I survived being bullied" www. Nachdem Mina Morddrohungen in ihrem Notizbuch fand und keine Unterstützung von ihrem Lehrer bekam, suchte sie die Schuld bei sich selbst. Preisgekrönte Projekte. Mozilla Firefox. Mein Ex Libris Jetzt anmelden. Giedre Bond. Ken Strunk. Coup de foudre! Article source Nominees Binge-Watch List. Abby überreicht Therese einen Https://drodre.co/hd-serien-stream/filmtastic-amazon.php von Carol. On 1 SeptemberSima who had resigned from the government gave a speech calling upon Carol to abdicate, and the Iron Guard began to organize click all over Romania more info press for king's abdication. He https://drodre.co/stream-kostenlos-filme/avatar-aufbruch-nach-pandora-stream-hd-filme.php the part of tortured husband well without Below Mouth Stream Online off as a mere villain. Therese Rooney Mara träumt von einem Job als Setdesignerin beim Theater, doch stattdessen ist sie mit Richard Jake Lacy zusammen, den sie eigentlich gar nicht liebt. November 19,

Carol Online - Beschreibung

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Therese creates a portfolio of her photographs and gets a job at The New York Times. In the meantime, Carol has been seeing a psychotherapist as a condition of the divorce settlement.

During a confrontational meeting in mid-April with divorce lawyers, Carol suddenly admits to the truth of what the tapes contain, and refuses to deny her sexuality.

To avoid going to court and the likelihood of a public scandal, she tells Harge that he can have custody of Rindy but insists on regular visitation.

Carol writes to Therese, and they meet in the lounge of the Ritz Tower Hotel. Carol reveals she is going to work for a furniture house, and has taken an apartment on Madison Avenue.

Therese declines Carol's invitation to live with her. Carol tells Therese that she is meeting associates in the Oak Room , and that if she changes her mind they can have dinner.

Therese remains still and Carol whispers "I love you. Therese accepts Jack's ride to a party, but finds that she cannot connect with anyone.

Therese heads to the Oak Room. She scans the diners and sees Carol at a table. Therese hesitates, before walking towards Carol.

Their eyes meet. Carol gazes at Therese with a smile that slowly grows. In , Highsmith agreed to republish with Bloomsbury Publishing under her own name, and retitled it Carol.

Senn Kathleen Wiggins Senn , whilst she was working as a Christmas season salesgirl at the toy department of Bloomingdale's in New York.

That evening she wrote an eight-page outline, which she developed some weeks later and had completed by London-born, New York-based producer Dorothy Berwin was initially attached to the project in , owning the rights to the novel.

She enlisted then-playwright Phyllis Nagy to write the screenplay on the recommendation of her London agent.

While searching for investors, Nagy and Berwin learned that the homosexuality of the characters was not as much of an obstacle as was that they were women.

You needed to always start with her role". In fact it insists on not being that in order to make the point. I would talk about that with financiers, and I could see them glaze over.

Nagy said it was important that the screenplay be authentic to the early s. It could not be corrupted by an impulse to indulge in any number of dramatic narrative cliches about guilt concerning one's sexuality or the like.

Nagy set the adaptation several years later than when the novel is set, so that "the dawn of the Eisenhower administration and the rise of HUAC could be front and center".

She's a ghost appropriately, as she should be, in the novel", adding that she was "overwhelmed by the task of trying to come up with the visual equivalent for it structurally.

She made Therese a photographer instead of a set designer, allowing her "to be seen moving from objects to people", which she likened to Highsmith as Therese is a "clear stand-in" for the author.

Nagy realized she would "pass time in a different way" to the novel, eliminating elements that were unnecessary and slowed down the story.

She had "great freedom" developing the screenplay in England, while no studio or director was attached. Over the years, five "proper" drafts materialized.

We both have an interest in restraint. At the London Film Festival , Nagy said she had titled the film Carol , and not The Price of Salt , because Highsmith herself had changed the title to Carol when the novel was republished, and she also "liked the sort of strange, obsessive nature of calling it by someone's name.

That is what transcends the class of love, or the period in which it's occurring, and makes it something that just humbles us all and levels us all.

British producer Elizabeth Karlsen of Number 9 Films came across Nagy's script in around , when she was co-producing Mrs.

They then decided to approach Haynes. Vachon, Haynes's frequent collaborator, asked if he would be interested, and he received a copy of the screenplay.

Two days later he committed to direct, and Vachon joined as a producer. Haynes had first heard about the film in , from costume designer Sandy Powell , who informed him that Blanchett was attached and that Karlsen was producing.

Blanchett, who served as an executive producer through her company Dirty Films, [40] had been involved with the project for "a long time".

He regarded the story, its historical and social context, and collaborating again with Blanchett, as motivations to get involved.

Another complication emerged when Wasikowska had to drop out because of a scheduling conflict. She said that although she loved the script and wanted to work with Blanchett, she had turned it down as she felt exhausted and unconfident.

By the time Haynes came on board she was "in a much different head space" and signing on was then "a no brainer". In rehearsal, Haynes, Blanchett and Mara realized that certain lines should be cut, which Haynes deemed the "stylistic practice that we all took throughout the creative departments.

I feel there was an understanding with them that words and dialogue were never carrying the weight of the story. He starts with a look book of images that he's compiled over the months and months.

He's almost OCD about it. In a good way. Haynes used their works as a visual reference for depicting a "dirty and sagging" New York.

In preparing for filming, the producers found that the cost of production in the New York City area would be prohibitive, and it was also going to be difficult to find locations there that resembled the early s.

Part of the financing plan hinged upon a co-production deal with Canada, with filming taking place in Montreal, but Haynes joining the production led to a rethink.

Karlsen recalled making a film 27 years earlier in Cincinnati , Ohio , that was set in s New York. After researching the city, she found that it had not changed much in decades, with Ohio also having one of the best film tax incentives in the U.

The city of Cincinnati was very accommodating to the production, which employed many locals as crew. In December , it was announced that Carol would be filmed in Cincinnati, Ohio, and that production offices would open in early January , with filming expected between mid-March and May.

Post-production in New York took seven months to complete. Visual effects VFX were used to remove modern components from backgrounds, with six "key shots" needing extensive VFX.

Moving shots were particularly complicated when they were filtered through windows, rain, dust, and other elements, said Haynes, and the CGI details "had to fit exactly into the vernacular itself, with the grain element and level of distress.

The producers gave notes on the director's cut, and held some test screenings with friends and acquaintances.

They decided to show the cut to Harvey Weinstein , who was impressed and endorsed it. Haynes confirmed the completion of deliverables on December 15, It was just a paring-down process, which all movies do.

Carol had its world premiere at the Cannes Film Festival. Originally scheduled for a December 18 release in the United States, Carol opened in limited release on November 20, Its CEO stated that it was "a huge challenge because of the federal 'gay propaganda' law that victimizes the Russian LGBT community", that "will prevent Carol [being] sold to major TV channels or even being advertised on federal networks".

He noted that "some cinemas will refuse to book the film", but "the controversy Carol was made available for digital download on March 4, Carol received a ten-minute standing ovation at its Cannes Film Festival international press screening and premiere.

Critics praised Haynes's direction, Blanchett's and Mara's performances, cinematography, costumes and musical score, and deemed it a strong contender for a Cannes award.

The website's critical consensus states: "Shaped by Todd Haynes' deft direction and powered by a strong cast led by Cate Blanchett and Rooney Mara, Carol lives up to its groundbreaking source material.

In this enjoyably deliberate film, each shot and scene is carefully composed to pay homage to 50s cinema, yet infused with an emotional ambiguity which feels decidedly contemporary.

This is filmmaking done by masters, an experience to savor. Scott wrote in The New York Times : "At once ardent and analytical, cerebral and swooning, 'Carol' is a study in human magnetism, in the physics and optics of eros.

With sparse dialogue and restrained drama, the film is a symphony of angles and glances, of colors and shadows. It is a film composed of gestures and glances, its delicacy a veiled promise of abandon.

And it could not exist without the extraordinary performances of Blanchett and Mara. Geoffrey Macnab of The Independent said: "Todd Haynes's latest feature is a subtle, moving and deceptive story of two women brilliantly played in very contrasting styles by Cate Blanchett and Rooney Mara who refuse to live against 'their own grain' Phyllis Nagy's screenplay emphasises their steeliness and self-reliance.

In sly and subversive fashion, Haynes is laying bare the tensions in a society that refuses to acknowledge 'difference' of any sort.

Cinematographer Ed Lachman shot on Super 16 mm film to achieve era-specific muted colours and softer textures.

Precise production design and a palette steeped in shades of green and red appropriate to the Yuletide setting make watching it seem like stepping inside an Edward Hopper painting.

From Phyllis Nagy's alluringly uncluttered script to Cate Blanchett's sturdily tremulous performance as a society woman with everything to lose, this brilliantly captures the thrills, tears and fears of forbidden love.

Writing for Variety , Justin Chang said: "despite their obvious differences in class and background, Therese and Carol seem to ease themselves and the audience so quickly and naturally into a bond that they have no interest in defining, or even really discussing—a choice that works not only for an era when their love dared not speak its name, but also for Haynes' faith in the power of the medium to achieve an eloquence beyond words.

As a period piece, the movie immerses us in s styles and attitudes. As a sensory experience, it dazzles with everything from rain-streaked windows to Therese's plaid tam-o-shanter Haynes powerfully addresses the consequences of ignorance and intolerance.

Impressively textured, the drama is filled with secret glances and other subtle aspects of forbidden love. Working from a carefully crafted script by Phyllis Nagy, Haynes portrays two people thirstily drinking each other in, while on the outside, they sip tea and cocktails with prim decorum.

Blanchett, a dream walking in Sandy Powell's frocks, delivers a master class in acting. And Mara is flawless It's a human one.

In a series of articles regarding the best of the s in film , IndieWire ranked Carol as the seventh-best film of the decade; Cate Blanchett's performance of the titular character as the second-best acting performance; the opening scene as the sixth-best film scene; and Carter Burwell's score as the second-best film score.

Carol has received over industry and critic nominations, and over 90 awards and honours. It also creates its own unique cinematic language and pulls the viewer deeper and deeper into a world where something as simple as love comes at a staggering cost.

Its delicate and precise exploration of emotion through color and light led us to discuss what it meant to achieve mastery of our craft.

CAROL sets the screen aglow with the light of longing as Cate Blanchett and Rooney Mara transform a period piece into a timeless cry from defiant hearts.

Todd Haynes serves their romance as a restorative cocktail, adding splashes of color to a repressive Eisenhower era, when love was often seen in black-and-white.

From luminous performances to sumptuous production, this is cinema's promise fulfilled—a haunting portrait in moving images, painted in the universal hues of heartache and passion.

In March , the British Film Institute named Carol the best LGBT film of all time, according to over one hundred film experts in a poll encompassing over eighty years of cinema.

Scott remarking, "It keeps taking me by surprise. The admiration of Carol resulted in a fandom community that has been referred to as the "Cult of Carol".

Club said that despite the film having been considered a "lock" for a Best Picture nomination, the omission "shouldn't have been a major shock" given the controversy over Brokeback Mountain 's loss a decade earlier.

At HitFix , Louis Virtel suggested that Academy members' reception of the film was hurt by its focus on self-determined women.

Snarker agreed that Carol may be too gay and too female "for the largely old white male voting base" to connect with. At The Advocate , Rebekah Allen argued that "there are those who simply do not want to see a lesbian love story on screen.

The omission from Best Picture, she concluded, illustrates "yet again how sexism operates in the world, and in the Academy specifically, as the refusal to see women as protagonists and agents of desire.

The Weinstein Company decided on the category placement to avoid the co-leads competing in the same category. In January , ABC rejected a prime time commercial featuring a snippet of the nude scene between Carol and Therese, which caused The Weinstein Company to re-edit the television trailer.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. North American theatrical release poster. Number 9 Films [1] Film4 [1] Killer Films [1].

StudioCanal The Weinstein Company. United Kingdom [2] United States [2]. What still strikes me now [about the novel], is how radical it was in terms of its overall conception—two central figures not giving a rat's ass about sexual identity.

No one frets about being gay; others fret on their behalf I also found Highsmith's notions of what makes a good mother to be quite radical—the choices that people have to make in order to make the lives of their children better seemed really fresh, and radical.

And still do, to this day, actually. Main article: Carol soundtrack. Main article: List of accolades received by Carol film.

And it made a real direct impact on some changes in the structure of the story. So we repeat that same structure in Brief Encounter that begins and ends with the same scene.

The difference is that in Brief Encounter you realize that this is Celia Johnson's story. She goes home and begins to recount this experience to her husband.

And you come full circle and then you realize what that conversation that was interrupted in the beginning of the film meant.

And in this case we do the same thing, but you also shift point of views by the end of Carol , so by the time we come back, it's no longer Therese that's in the vulnerable position, but Carol.

It wasn't possible. So I just waited and waited. It took a good 10 years before the rights were free. The film was pre-sold to them at Cannes five years ago, nearly two years before we finally went into production.

One of the non negotiable terms of the distribution agreement, which was a standard term for TWC and Miramax distribution agreements, was an Executive Producer credit for Harvey Weinstein.

Indeed, EP credits for financiers, sales agents and distributors in key territories is industry standard. He was NOT a producer on the film.

Neither he nor TWC were involved in the development of the film nor had any script, editorial, casting or other type of creative involvement in the film whatsoever.

They acted solely as distributors. Had we had an offer equal to or greater than the TWC offer for US distribution rights we would have taken it, but we didn't.

This is a frequent and frustrating misrepresentation of Harvey Weinstein and his role—he was a distributor, who stole the producing credit as well as the financial rewards from the actual producers who sourced, developed, filmed and fully created the work as we did with CAROL.

He simply released and distributed it into cinemas. At one time he headed a great distribution company. American Film Institute.

Retrieved December 3, British Film Institute. The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 27, The Numbers. Nash Information Services.

Archived from the original on December 22, Retrieved May 21, New York. Retrieved February 1, Retrieved February 21, The New Yorker.

The Daily Telegraph. Martin's Press. The Telegraph. The marriage soon collapsed in the wake of Carol's affair with Elena "Magda" Lupescu ?

The National Liberal Party , which dominated Romania's politics, made much of Carol's relationship with Lupescu to argue that he was unqualified to be king.

As a result of the scandal, Carol renounced his right to the throne on 28 December in favour of his son by Crown Princess Helen, Michael Mihai , who became king in July Helen divorced Carol in After renouncing his right to the throne, Carol moved to Paris, where he lived openly in a common-law relationship with Madame Lupescu.

For the next decade he sought to influence the course of Romanian political life, first through manipulation of the rival Peasant and Liberal parties and anti-Semitic factions, and subsequently January through a ministry of his own choosing.

The American historian Stanley G. Payne described Carol as "the most cynical, corrupt and power-hungry monarch who ever disgraced a throne anywhere in twentieth-century Europe".

He liked things large but relatively simple-his royal palace testifies to that trait. Carol liked to present an impressive and populist persona to the public, wearing garish military uniforms adorned with medals, and to be the benefactor of every philanthropic endeavor in the land.

Carol had a populist style, depicting himself as the defender of the common man against the corrupt Francophile elites especially the National Liberals mixed in with generous elements of nationalism and Eastern Orthodoxy.

After committing murders, Iron Guardsmen rarely attempted to flee and instead waited to be arrested as they wanted to be executed for their crimes.

Many found the way that Legionaries went to their executions positively giddy and joyful about the prospect of their own deaths, happily proclaiming their deaths were the happiest moment of their life a deeply eerie experience.

Carol regarded Codreanu's death fetish together with his claim that the Archangel Michael had told him that God had chosen him to save Romania as evidence that Codreanu was "crazy".

Carol had sworn in his coronation oath to uphold the constitution of , a promise he had no intention of keeping and right from the start of his reign, the king meddled in politics to increase his own power.

When Carol broke his own word and continued to live with Madame Lupescu, Maniu resigned in protest in October , and was to emerge as one of Carol's leading enemies.

Despite his dislike of the National Liberals, Maniu's enmity towards Carol left the king with little choice, but to enlist as his allies the break-away factions of the National Liberals against the National Peasants who demanding that Carol banish Lupescu and return to Princess Helen of Greece.

The "Red Queen" as Lupescu was known to the Romanian people on the account of the color of her hair was the most hated woman in s Romania, a woman whom ordinary Romanians saw in the words of the British historian Rebecca Haynes as "the embodiment of evil".

Lupescu was Roman Catholic, but because her father was a Jew, she was widely viewed as Jewish. Lupescu's personality did not win her many friends as she was arrogant, pushy, manipulative and extremely greedy with an insatiable taste for buying the most expensive French clothes, cosmetics and jewelry.

Further adding to Lupescu's immense unpopularity was she was a businesswoman who used her connections to the Crown to engage in dubious transactions that usually involved large sums of public money going into her pocket.

Carol sought to play the National Liberals, the National Peasant Party and the Iron Guard off against each other with the ultimate aim of making himself master of Romanian politics and disposing of all the parties in Romania.

Duca , which led to the first of several bans placed on the Legion. The jury acquitted Codreanu, an act that worried Carol as it showed that Codreanu's revolutionary message that the entire elite needed to be destroyed was winning popular approval.

Carol's image was always that of the "playboy king"; a hedonistic monarch more interested in womanizing, drinking, gambling and partying than in affairs of state, and to the extent that he cared about politics, Carol was viewed as a scheming, dishonest man only interested in wrecking the democratic system to seize power for himself.

To compensate for his rather negative and well-deserved "playboy king" image, Carol created a lavish personality cult around himself that grew more extreme as his reign went on, which portrayed the king as a Christ-like being "chosen" by God to create a "new Romania".

Carol had little understanding or interest in economics, but his most influential economic advisor was Mihail Manoilescu who favored an etatist model of economic development with the state intervening in the economy to encourage growth.

For most of the interwar period, Romania was in the French sphere of influence and in June a defensive alliance was signed with France.

The alliance with France together with an alliance with Poland signed in and the Little Entente which united Romania, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia were the cornerstones of Romanian foreign policy.

Starting in , the French had sought to create the Cordon sanitaire that would keep both Germany and the Soviet Union out of Eastern Europe.

Carol did not seek to replace the foreign policy he had inherited in at first as he regarded the continuation of the cordon sanitaire as the best guarantee of Romania's independence and territorial integrity, and as such, his foreign policy was essentially pro-French.

At the time that Romania signed the alliance with France, the Rhineland region of Germany was demilitarised and the thinking in Bucharest had always been that if Germany should commit any act of aggression anywhere in Eastern Europe, the French would begin an offensive into the Reich.

Starting in when the French began to build the Maginot Line along their border with Germany, some doubts started to be expressed in Bucharest about whatever the French might actually come to Romania's aid in the event of German aggression.

In , Carol had Nicolae Titulescu -an outspoken champion of collective security under the banner of League of Nations-appointed foreign minister with instructions to use principles of collective security as the building blocks for creating some sort of security structure intended to keep both Germany and the Soviet Union out of Eastern Europe.

The process of Gleichschaltung coordination in National Socialist Germany did not extend only to the Reich , but was rather thought of by the National Socialist leadership as a worldwide process in which the NSDAP would take control over all of the ethnic German communities around the entire world.

The Foreign Policy Department of the NSDAP headed by Alfred Rosenberg starting in had attempted to take over the volksdeutsch ethnic German community in Romania, a policy that greatly offended Carol who regarded this as outrageous German interference in Romania's internal affairs.

Carol like the rest of the Romanian elite was worried by the prospect of an alliance of the revisionist states that rejected the legitimacy of the international order created by the Allies in as indicating that Germany would support Hungary's claims to Transylvania.

Accordingly, Franco-Hungarian relations were extremely bad during the interwar period, and so it seemed natural that Hungary would ally itself with France's archenemy Germany.

In , Titulescu played a leading role in creating the Balkan Entente which brought together Romania, Yugoslavia, Greece and Turkey in an alliance intended to counter Bulgarian revanchism.

Like France, Romania was allied to both Czechoslovakia and Poland, but because of the Teschen dispute in Silesia, Warsaw and Prague were bitter enemies.

Like the diplomats of the Qua d'Orsay, Carol was exasperated by the bitter Polish-Czechoslovak dispute, arguing that it was absurd for anti-revisionist Eastern European states to be feuding with one another in the face of the rise of German and Soviet power.

At the same time, Carol also considered the possibility that if Romanian-German relations were improved, then perhaps Berlin could be persuaded not to support Budapest in its campaign to regain Transylvania.

Even before the Great Depression, Romania had been an extremely poor country and the Depression had hit Romania hard with Romanians been unable to export much owing to the global trade war set off by the American Smoot—Hawley Tariff Act of , which in turn led to a decline in the value of the lei as Romanian's reserves of foreign exchange were being used up.

Carol often encouraged splits in the political parties to encourage his own ends. In February , the Legion's Corneliu Zelea Codreanu who until then had regarded as an ally of Carol for the first time attacked the king directly when he organized demonstrations outside of the royal palace attacking Carol after Dr.

Dimitrie Gerota had been imprisoned for writing an article exposing the corrupt business dealings of Lupescu. The doubts about the French willingness to undertake an offensive against Germany were further reinforced by the Remilitarization of the Rhineland in March which had the effect of allowing the Germans to start building the Siegfried line along the border with France, something that considerably lessened the prospect of a French offensive into western Germany if the Reich should invade any of the states of the cordon sanitaire.

A British Foreign Office memo from March stated that only nations in the world that would apply sanctions on Germany for remilitarizing the Rhineland if the League of Nations should vote for such a step were Britain, France, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union and Romania.

On the domestic front, in the summer of Codreanu and Maniu formed an alliance to oppose the growing power of the Crown and the National Liberal government.

Reflecting the changed emphasis, Carol vetoed in February a plan promoted by France and Czechoslovakia for a new alliance which would formally unite France with the Little Entente and envisioned more much closer military ties between the French and their allies in Eastern Europe.

Germany's the French had 40 million people while Germany had 70 million people. French military planners envisioned the role of Romania and Yugoslavia in such a war as invading Hungary to relieve the pressure on Czechoslovakia.

Right up until , Carol's foreign policy teetered uneasily between the traditional alliance with France and an alignment with the newly ascendant power of Germany.

At the same time that the German-Romanian treaty was signed in December , Carol was receiving the French Foreign Minister Yvon Delbos to show that the alliance with France was not yet dead.

In the summer of , Carol paid an extended visit to Paris, during which he predicated to the French Foreign Minister Yvon Delbos that Romanian democracy would soon end.

I am with the states of the National Revolution against Bolshevism Within forty-eight hours of a Legionary movement victory, Romania will have an alliance with Rome and Berlin".

Carol had always insisted that control of foreign policy was his own, exclusive royal prerogative which no-else was allowed to interfere with.

By challenging Carol's right to control foreign policy, Codreanu had crossed the Rubicon in the king's eyes and that time onward, Carol was committed to the destruction of the arrogant upstart Codreanu and his movement who had dared to challenge the king's prerogative.

The All for Fatherland! Carol's reasons for appointing Goga Prime Minister were partly because he hoped that anti-Semitic policies Goga would bring in would win him support from the All for Fatherland!

As leader of the fourth party in parliament, Goga's government was certain to be defeated on a vote of no-confidence when parliament convened as the National Liberals, National Peasants and the All for the Fatherland Party had all come out against Goga, albeit for very different reasons.

The harsh anti-Semitic policies of the Goga government impoverished the Jewish minority, and led to immediate complaints from the British, French and American governments that Goga's policies were going to lead to a Jewish exodus out of Romania.

Carol was personally not an anti-Semite, but in the words of his biographer Paul D. Quinlan the king was "simply indifferent" to the sufferings of his Jewish subjects caused by Goga's oppressive anti-Semitic laws.

Weinberg wrote about Goga that he was "Unprepared for office and untouched by any leadership ability Coming to realize belatedly that he was being used by Carol, Goga had a meeting with Codreanu on 8 February at the house of Ion Gigurtu to arrange for a deal under which the Iron Guard would withdraw its candidates from the election in order to ensure that the radical anti-Semitic right would have a majority.

Having outlived his usefulness, Carol sacked Goga as Prime Minister and appointed as his successor Patriarch Elie Cristea , the head of the Romanian Eastern Orthodox Church, a man whom Carol knew would command wide respect in a country where the majority of the population was Orthodox.

On 11 February , Carol drafted a new constitution. Although it was superficially similar to its predecessor, it was actually a severely authoritarian and corporatist document.

The new constitution effectively codified the emergency powers Carol had seized in February, turning his government into a de facto legal dictatorship.

It concentrated virtually all governing power in his hands, almost to the point of absolute monarchy.

The new constitution was approved in a plebiscite held under far-from-secret conditions; voters were required to appear before an election bureau and verbally state whether they approved the constitution; silence was deemed as a "yes" vote.

Under these conditions, an implausible At the time of his coup in February , Carol informed the German minister Wilhelm Fabricius of his wish for closer ties between his country and Germany.

After Codreanu's conviction on 19 April , he was convicted again in a second trial on 27 May of high treason where he was accused of working in the pay of Germany to effect a revolution since and sentenced to 10 years in prison.

In view of Germany's desperate need for oil and the repeated German requests for a new economic agreement which would allow for more Romanian oil to be shipped to the Reich , Carol met Fabricius to tell him that he wanted such an agreement to create a lasting understanding between Germany and Romania.

Watt wrote that Carol had a "trump card" in his control of the oil Germany needed so badly and that the Germans were willing to pay a very high price for Romanian oil without which their military could not function.

In December , the National Renaissance Front was formed as the country's only legal party.

That same month, Carol appointed his friend since childhood and another member of the camarilla Grigore Gafencu as foreign minister.

In February , Göring dispatched his deputy Helmuth Wohlthat of the Four Year Plan organisation to Bucharest with instructions to sign yet another German-Romanian economic treaty that would allow Germany total economic domination of Romania, especially its oil industry.

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